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Am J Med Genet A. 2011 Dec;155A(12):2925-32. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33858. Epub 2011 Oct 18.

Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome: clinical, molecular-cytogenetic, and DNA array analyses of three patients with chromosomal defects at 6p25.

Author information

1
Section of Clinical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Tenshi Hospital, Sapporo, Japan. hidefumi.tonoki@tenshi.or.jp

Abstract

Clinical phenotypes of and genetic aberrations in three unrelated Japanese patients with Axenfeld-Rieger anomalies and various accompanying malformations of systemic organs are described. GTG-banded chromosome analysis showed terminal deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 in two patients and an inversion, inv(6)(p25q14), in the other. FISH and DNA array analyses revealed that the two patients with deletions had 5.0-5.7 Mb and 6.6 Mb 6p terminal deletions, respectively, and FOXC1 was apparently deleted in both patients. In the other patient, the inversion breakpoint at 6p25 was estimated to be in or very close to the FOXC1 locus, but DNA array analysis did not reveal a deletion around the breakpoint. Common extraocular findings in these patients included broad forehead, brachycephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, small anteverted nose, and cardiac defects. Two patients also exhibited autistic characteristics. The two patients with deletions exhibited poor muscle tone and developmental delays. Most of these extraocular findings were similar to those found in previous patients with FOXC1 mutations and distinct from those found in patients with PITX2 mutations, who frequently develop umbilical and dental anomalies. We suggest that the psychomotor retardation is a clinical manifestation associated with a deletion of multiple contiguous genes in the 6p terminus and that this phenomenon is similar to the 6p25 deletion syndrome. Understanding the relationship between genetic lesions and the spectrum of extraocular findings in patients with Axenfeld-Rieger anomalies may lead to better clinical management.

PMID:
22009788
DOI:
10.1002/ajmg.a.33858
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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