Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2011 Nov 28;369(1955):4644-50. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2010.0353.

Performance benchmarks of an array-based hand-held photoacoustic probe adapted from a clinical ultrasound system for non-invasive sentinel lymph node imaging.

Author information

Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130-4899, USA.


Clinical translation of photoacoustic (PA) imaging can be facilitated by integration with commercial ultrasound (US) scanners to enable dual-modality imaging. An array-based US scanner was modified for hand-held PA imaging. The performance was benchmarked in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), axial spatial resolution and sensitivity. PA images of a tube, filled with methylene blue (MB; approx. 30 mM) and placed at various depths in chicken tissue, were acquired. A 5 cm penetration depth was achieved with an 18.6 dB SNR using a laser fluence of 3 mJ cm(-2), only one-seventh of the safety limit (20 mJ cm(-2)). An axial resolution of approximately 400 μm was maintained at all imaging depths. The PA sensitivity to MB placed 2.3 cm deep in chicken tissue was less than 100 μM. Further, after intradermal injection of MB (approx. 30 mM), a rat sentinel lymph node was clearly identified in vivo, beneath a 3.8 cm thick layer of chicken breast. The accumulated concentration of MB in the node was estimated to be approximately 7 mM. The noise-equivalent sensitivities (approx. 2 cm depth) were 17 and 85 μM, ex vivo and in vivo, respectively. These results support the use of this PA system for non-invasive mapping and image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel nodes in breast cancer patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center