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Psychol Sci. 2011 Nov;22(11):1442-51. doi: 10.1177/0956797611419521. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

The brain basis of the phonological deficit in dyslexia is independent of IQ.

Author information

1
Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, USA.

Abstract

Although the role of IQ in developmental dyslexia remains ambiguous, the dominant clinical and research approaches rely on a definition of dyslexia that requires reading skill to be significantly below the level expected given an individual's IQ. In the study reported here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to examine whether differences in brain activation during phonological processing that are characteristic of dyslexia were similar or dissimilar in children with poor reading ability who had high IQ scores (discrepant readers) and in children with poor reading ability who had low IQ scores (nondiscrepant readers). In two independent samples including a total of 131 children, using univariate and multivariate pattern analyses, we found that discrepant and nondiscrepant poor readers exhibited similar patterns of reduced activation in brain areas such as left parietotemporal and occipitotemporal regions. These results converge with behavioral evidence indicating that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have similar kinds of reading difficulties in relation to phonological processing.

PMID:
22006060
PMCID:
PMC4380286
DOI:
10.1177/0956797611419521
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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