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Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011 Oct 17;18 Suppl 1:S1-16. doi: 10.1530/ERC-11-0013. Print 2011 Oct.

Classification and pathology of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.

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1
Department of Pathology, Technical University of München, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 München, Germany. guenter.kloeppel@alumni.uni-kiel.de

Abstract

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are composed of cells with a neuroendocrine phenotype. The old and the new WHO classifications distinguish between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated neoplasms. All well-differentiated neoplasms, regardless of whether they behave benignly or develop metastases, will be called neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), and graded G1 (Ki67 <2%) or G2 (Ki67 2-20%). All poorly differentiated neoplasms will be termed neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and graded G3 (Ki67 >20%). To stratify the GEP-NETs and GEP-NECs regarding their prognosis, they are now further classified according to TNM-stage systems that were recently proposed by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) and the AJCC/UICC. In the light of these criteria the pathology and biology of the various NETs and NECs of the gastrointestinal tract (including the oesophagus) and the pancreas are reviewed.

PMID:
22005112
DOI:
10.1530/ERC-11-0013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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