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Pediatr Transplant. 2011 Nov;15(7):699-705. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01564.x.

Risk factors for late renal dysfunction after pediatric heart transplantation: a multi-institutional study.

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Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA.


Renal dysfunction is a major determinant of outcome after HTx. Using a large, multi-institutional database, we sought to identify factors associated with late renal dysfunction after pediatric HTx. All patients in the PHTS database with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at one yr post-HTx (n = 812) were analyzed by Cox regression for association with risk factors for eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at >1 yr after HTx. Freedom from late renal dysfunction was 71% and 57% at five and 10 yr. Multivariate risk factors for late renal dysfunction were earlier era of HTx (HR 1.84; p < 0.001), black race (HR 1.42; p = 0.048), rejection with hemodynamic compromise in the first year after HTx (HR 1.74; p = 0.038), and lowest quartile eGFR at one yr post-HTx (HR 1.83; p < 0.001). Renal function at HTx was not associated with onset of late renal dysfunction. Eleven patients (1.4%) required chronic dialysis and/or renal transplant during median follow-up of 4.1 yr (1.5-12.6). Late renal dysfunction is common after pediatric HTx, with blacks at increased risk. Decreased eGFR at one yr post-HTx, but not at HTx, predicts onset of late renal dysfunction. Future research on strategies to minimize late renal dysfunction after pediatric HTx may be of greatest benefit if focused on these subgroups.

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