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Diabet Med. 2012 May;29(5):586-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03493.x.

Types of smokers in a community sample of individuals with Type 2 diabetes: a latent class analysis.

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Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada.



Despite the detrimental effects of smoking on their health, a high number of adults with Type 2 diabetes continue to smoke. Identifying distinct types of smokers within this population could help tailor and target intervention programmes. This study examined whether smokers with Type 2 diabetes could be classified into different profiles based on smoking habits, socio-economic characteristics and lifestyle factors.


A sample of adults with self-reported diabetes was selected from random-digit dialing. Analyses included 383 participants with Type 2 diabetes who were current smokers. Information related to smoking, socio-economic status, health and lifestyle was collected by phone interview at baseline and 1 year later. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of smokers.


We uncovered three meaningful classes of smokers: class 1, long-time smokers with long-standing diabetes (n = 105); class 2, heavy smokers with deprived socio-economic status, poor health and unhealthy lifestyle characteristics (n = 105); class 3, working and active smokers who were more recently diagnosed with diabetes (n = 173). Members of class 2 were significantly more likely to be disabled and depressed at baseline and 1 year later compared with other classes.


Different profiles of smokers exist among adults with Type 2 diabetes, each suggesting different cessation treatment needs. Distinguishing between these types of smokers may enable clinicians to tailor their approach to smoking cessation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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