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J Cell Mol Med. 2012 Aug;16(8):1750-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01472.x.

A novel regulation of VEGF expression by HIF-1α and STAT3 in HDM2 transfected prostate cancer cells.

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Health Professions Division, Rumbaugh Goodwin Institute for Cancer Research, Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33313, USA.


On the basis of increasing roles for HDM2 oncoprotein in cancer growth and progression, we speculated that HDM2 might play a major role in hypoxia-induced metastatic process. For verification of this hypothesis, wild-type LNCaP prostate cancer cells and HDM2 transfected LNCaP-MST (HDM2 stably transfected) cells were studied. The data obtained from our experiments revealed that the HDM2 transfected LNCaP-MST cells possessed an ability to multiply rapidly and show distinct morphological features compared to non-transfected LNCaP cells. During exposures to hypoxia HDM2 expression in the LNCaP and LNCaP-MST cells was significantly higher compared to the normoxic levels. The LNCaP-MST cells also expressed higher levels of HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) and p-STAT3 even under the normoxic conditions compared to the non-transfected cells. The HIF-1α and p-STAT3 expressions were increased several fold when the cells were subjected to hypoxic conditions. The HIF-1α and p-STAT3 protein expressions observed in HDM2 transfected LNCaP-MST cells were 20 and 15 folds higher, respectively, compared to the non-transfected wild-type LNCaP cells. These results demonstrate that HDM2 may have an important regulatory role in mediating the HIF-1α and p-STAT3 protein expression during both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression that is typically regulated by HIF-1α and p-STAT3 was also increased significantly by 136% (P < 0.01) after HDM2 transfection. The overall results point towards a novel ability of HDM2 in regulating HIF-1α and p-STAT3 levels even in normoxic conditions that eventually lead to an up-regulation of VEGF expression.

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