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J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2011 Nov-Dec;51(6):e64-74. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2011.11543.

Integrating pharmacogenomics into pharmacy practice via medication therapy management.



To explore the application and integration of pharmacogenomics in pharmacy clinical practice via medication therapy management (MTM) to improve patient care.


Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) Personalized Health Care Initiative, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pharmacogenomics activity, and findings from the Utilizing E-Prescribing Technologies to Integrate Pharmacogenomics into Prescribing and Dispensing Practices Stakeholder Workshop, convened by the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) on March 5, 2009. Participants at the Stakeholder Workshop included diverse representatives from pharmacy, medicine, pathology, health information technology (HIT), standards, science, academia, government, and others with a key interest in the clinical application of pharmacogenomics.


In 2006, HHS initiated the Personalized Health Care Initiative with the goal of building the foundation for the delivery of gene-based care, which may prove to be more effective for large patient subpopulations. In the years since the initiative was launched, drug manufacturers and FDA have begun to incorporate pharmacogenomic data and applications of this information into the drug development, labeling, and approval processes. New applications and processes for using this emerging pharmacogenomics data are needed to effectively integrate this information into clinical practice. Building from the findings of a stakeholder workshop convened by APhA and the advancement of the pharmacist's collaborative role in patient care through MTM, emerging roles for pharmacists using pharmacogenomic information to improve patient care are taking hold. Realizing the potential role of the pharmacist in pharmacogenomics through MTM will require connectivity of pharmacists into the electronic health record infrastructure to permit the exchange of pertinent health information among all members of a patient's health care team. Addressing current barriers, concerns, and system limitations and developing an effective infrastructure will be necessary for pharmacogenomics to achieve its true potential.


To achieve integration of pharmacogenomics into clinical practice via MTM, the pharmacy profession must define a process for the application of pharmacogenomic data into pharmacy clinical practice that is aligned with MTM service delivery, develop a viable business model for these practices, and encourage and direct the development of HIT solutions that support the pharmacist's role in this emerging field.

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