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JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 Oct;4(10):1067-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2011.07.006.

Presence of extensive LV remodeling limits the benefits of CRT in patients with intraventricular dyssynchrony.

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Division of Cardiology, University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy.



The aim of this study was to evaluate whether, in patients with evidence of both electrical and mechanical left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony, extensive LV dilation would affect response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).


Cardiac resynchronization therapy is effective in heart failure patients with LV dysfunction and wide QRS complex. However, many patients still fail to respond. We hypothesized that presence of extensive LV dilation might prevent response to CRT, despite LV mechanical dyssynchrony.


We studied 78 heart failure patients (68 ± 9 years of age, 77% men) with both electrical (QRS width >120 ms) and mechanical intraventricular dyssynchrony (by tissue Doppler imaging and/or left lateral wall post-systolic contraction). Echocardiographic evaluation was performed at baseline and 6 to 8 months after CRT. As an indication of LV remodeling, end-diastolic volume index and end-systolic volume index (ESVI) and sphericity index were measured. Long-term (40 ± 23 months) clinical follow-up (events: cardiac death and hospital admission for heart failure) was also obtained.


At follow-up after CRT, in the overall population, ejection fraction increased from 26 ± 6% to 35 ± 11% (p < 0.0001), whereas end-diastolic volume index (from 144 ± 43 ml/m(2) to 119 ± 55 ml/m(2)), ESVI (from 108 ± 37 ml/m(2) to 82 ± 49 ml/m(2), p < 0.0001 for both), and sphericity index (from 0.60 ± 0.22 to 0.53 ± 0.15, p = 0.0036) all significantly decreased. By multiple linear regression analysis, after controlling for confounding factors, change in LV ejection fraction at follow-up resulted independently and negatively associated with baseline ESVI (p = 0.001), with much lower improvement after implant in the highest tertile of baseline ESVI. During follow-up, 31 patients (39.7%) had a cardiac event. By Cox regression model, baseline ESVI was the most powerful predictor of events, with event-rate/year increasing with increasing tertiles of ESVI (6.3%, 10.1%, and 23.8%, respectively, p < 0.05).


In this nonrandomized, open-label clinical study, despite intraventricular electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony, extensive LV remodeling at baseline negatively impacted CRT results in terms of LV function improvement and incidence of cardiac events at follow-up.

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