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Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Jun;112(6):2223-32. doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-2199-2. Epub 2011 Oct 14.

Role of the coordinated activities of trunk and lower limb muscles during the landing-to-jump movement.

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Department of Life Sciences (Sports Sciences), University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan.


This study aimed to clarify how the activities of trunk and lower limb muscles during a landing-to-jump (L-J) movement are coordinated to perform the task effectively. Electromyography (EMG) activities of trunk and lower limb muscles as well as kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded while 17 subjects performed 5 L-Js from a height of 35 cm. The L-J was divided into four phases: PRE phase, 100 ms preceding ground contact; ABSORPTION phase, from ground contact through 100 ms; BRAKING phase, from the end of the ABSORPTION phase to the time of the lowest center of mass position; and PROPULSION phase, from the end of the BRAKING phase to takeoff. The trunk extensor and flexors showed reciprocal activation patterns through the L-J. In the PROPULSION phase, the timings when the EMG activities of the extensor muscles peaked were characterized as a sequential proximal-to-distal pattern. Furthermore, the peak vertical ground reaction force in the ABSORPTION phase relative to body mass negatively correlated to the jump height of the L-J movement and positively correlated with the magnitude of the EMG activities of the soleus in the PRE phase and those of the soleus and rectus abdominis in the ABSORPTION phase. These findings indicate that the intensities and peak timings of muscle activities in the trunk and lower limb are coordinated during the L-J movement and, the coordinated activities would play functional roles such as impact absorption, braking against the descent of body and force generation and direction control for jumping.

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