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Am J Cancer Res. 2011;1(5):604-17. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Chromosome rearrangement associated inactivation of tumour suppressor genes in prostate cancer.

Abstract

Prostate cancer, the most common male cancer in Western countries, is commonly detected with complex chromosomal rearrangements. Following the discovery of the recurrent TMPRSS2:ETS fusions in prostate cancer and EML4:ALK in non-small-cell lung cancer, it is now accepted that fusion genes not only are the hallmark of haematological malignancies and sarcomas, but also play an important role in epithelial cell carcinogenesis. However, previous studies aiming to identify fusion genes in prostate cancer were mainly focused on expression changes and fusion transcripts. To investigate the genes recurrently affected by the chromosome breakpoints in prostate cancer, we analysed Affymetrix array 6.0 and 500K SNP microarray data from 77 prostate cancer samples. While the two genes most frequently affected by genomic breakpoints were, as expected, ERG and TMPRSS2, surprisingly more known tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) than known oncogenes were identified at recurrent chromosome breakpoints. Certain well-characterised TSGs, including p53, PTEN, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are recurrently truncated as a result of chromosome rearrangements in prostate cancer. Interestingly, many of the genes residing at recurrent breakpoint sites have not yet been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis such as HOOK3, PPP2R2A and TCBA1. We have confirmed the generally reduced expression of selected genes in clinical samples using quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Subsequently, we further investigated the genes associated with the t(4:6) translocation in LNCaP cells and reveal the genomic fusion of SNX9 and putative TSG UNC5C, which led to the reduced expression of both genes. This study reveals another common mechanism that leads to the inactivation of TSGs in prostate cancer and the identification of multiple TSGs inactivated by chromosome rearrangements will lead to new direction of research for the molecular basis of prostate carcinogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

FISH; QRT-PCR; SNP array; chromosome breakpoints; chromosome rearrangements; oncogene; prostate cancer; tumour suppressor gene

PMID:
21994901
PMCID:
PMC3189822

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