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Viruses. 2009 Dec;1(3):1057-72. doi: 10.3390/v1031057. Epub 2009 Nov 26.

A Closer Look at the NS1 of Influenza Virus.

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OIE/FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Avian influenza and Newcastle Disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell' Università, 10, Legnaro (PD), 35020, Italy; E-Mail:


The Non-Structural 1 (NS1) protein is a multifactorial protein of type A influenza viruses that plays an important role in the virulence of the virus. A large amount of what we know about this protein has been obtained from studies using human influenza isolates and, consequently, the human NS1 protein. The current global interest in avian influenza, however, has highlighted a number of sequence and functional differences between the human and avian NS1. This review discusses these differences in addition to describing potential uses of NS1 in the management and control of avian influenza outbreaks.


DIVA; Non-Structural 1 protein; avian influenza; carboxy terminal; vaccination

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