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Tissue Eng Part A. 2012 Apr;18(7-8):757-67. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2011.0176. Epub 2011 Dec 2.

Osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells in hydroxyapatite-loaded microsphere-based scaffolds.

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Orbis Biosciences, Kansas City, Kansas 66045, USA.


Calcium-based minerals have consistently been shown to stimulate osteoblastic behavior in vitro and in vivo. Thus, use of such minerals in biomaterial applications has become an effective method to enhance bone tissue engineered constructs. In the present study, for the first time, human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) were osteogenically differentiated on scaffolds consisting only of hydroxyapatite (HAp)-loaded poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres of high monodispersity. Scaffold formulations included 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% Hap, and the hBMSC were cultured for 6 weeks. Results demonstrated suppression of some osteogenic genes during differentiation in the HAp group, but higher end-point glycosaminoglycan and collagen content in 10% and 20% HAp samples, as evidenced by biochemical tests, histology, and immunohistochemistry. After 6 weeks of culture, constructs with 0% and 5% HAp had average compressive moduli of 0.7 ± 0.2 and 1.5 ± 0.9 kPa, respectively, whereas constructs with 10% and 20% HAp had higher average moduli of 17.6 ± 4.6 and 18.9 ± 8.1 kPa, respectively. The results of this study indicate that HAp inclusion in microsphere-based scaffolds could be implemented as a physical gradient in combination with bioactive signal gradients seen in previous iterations of these microsphere-based scaffolds to enhance osteoconduction and mechanical integrity of a healing site.

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