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DNA Cell Biol. 2012 Apr;31(4):479-88. doi: 10.1089/dna.2011.1367. Epub 2011 Oct 11.

Modulation of immunogenicity and immunoprotection of mucosal vaccine against coxsackievirus B3 by optimizing the coadministration mode of lymphotactin adjuvant.

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Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biology, Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China.


Induction of potent mucosal immune response is a goal of current vaccine strategies against mucus-infectious pathogens such as Coxsackievirus B3 type (CVB3). We previously showed that administration of lymphotactin (LTN) as an adjuvant could enhance the specific immune responses against a mucosal gene vaccine, chitosan-pVP1, against CVB3. To optimize the coadministration mode of the mucosal adjuvant, we compared the mucosal immune responses induced by chitosan-DNA vaccine with different combinations of the target VP1 antigen gene and the adjuvant LTN gene. The two genes were either cloned in separate vectors or coexpressed as a fusion or bicistron protein in the same vector before encapsulation in chitosan nanoparticles. Four doses of various adjuvant-combined chitosan-DNA were intranasally administrated to mice before challenge with CVB3. The results indicated that chitosan-formulated pVP1-LTN fusion plasmid exhibited very weak improvement of CVB3-specific immune responses. Although the bicistronic coexpression of LTN with VP1 was expected to be powerful, this combination had enhanced effects on serum IgG and systemic T cell immune responses, but not on mucosal T cell immunity. Coimmunization with VP1 and LTN as separate chitosan-DNA formulation remarkably enhanced antibody and T cell immune responses both in systemic and mucosal immune compartments, leading to the most desirable preventive effect on viral myocarditis. Taken together, how the adjuvant is combined with the target antigen has a strong influence on the mucosal immune responses induced by mucosal DNA vaccines.

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