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Clin Exp Immunol. 2011 Nov;166(2):184-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04409.x.

In vitro effect of anti-human immunodeficiency virus CCR5 antagonist maraviroc on chemotactic activity of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells.

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Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, 'Sapienza' University, Rome.


Compounds targeting the chemokine receptor CCR5 have recently been approved for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Given the central role of CCR5 in inflammation and recruitment of antigen-presenting cells (APC), it is important to investigate the immunological consequences of pharmacological inhibition of CCR5. We evaluated the in vitro effect of different concentrations of CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) on cell migration of monocytes, macrophages (MO) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDC) towards peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and chemokines regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1β) and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Results of flow cytometric analysis showed that monocytes treated in vitro with MVC exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of chemotaxis towards MIP-1β and MCP-1. fMLP-induced chemotactic activity decreased only at higher concentration (1 µM and 10 µM of MVC). In addition, all concentrations of MVC (0·1, 1 and 10 µM) induced in vitro a significant inhibition of chemotaxis of MO and MDC in response to all tested chemoattractants. No change in phenotype (CD1a and CD14) and CCR1, CCR4, CCR5 and formyl peptide receptor (FPR) expression was seen after in vitro treatment with MVC. These findings suggest that CCR5 antagonist MVC may have the in vitro ability of inhibiting the migration of innate immune cells by mechanism which could be independent from the pure anti-HIV effect. The drug might have a potential role in the down-regulation of HIV-associated chronic inflammation by blocking the recirculation and trafficking of MO and MDC.

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