Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Ther Deliv. 2011 Jul;2(7):873-89. doi: 10.4155/tde.11.60.

Autoimmune therapies targeting costimulation and emerging trends in multivalent therapeutics.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, KS, USA.

Abstract

Proteins participating in immunological signaling have emerged as important targets for controlling the immune response. A multitude of receptor-ligand pairs that regulate signaling pathways of the immune response have been identified. In the complex milieu of immune signaling, therapeutic agents targeting mediators of cellular signaling often either activate an inflammatory immune response or induce tolerance. This review is primarily focused on therapeutics that inhibit the inflammatory immune response by targeting membrane-bound proteins regulating costimulation or mediating immune-cell adhesion. Many of these signals participate in larger, organized structures such as the immunological synapse. Receptor clustering and arrangement into organized structures is also reviewed and emerging trends implicating a potential role for multivalent therapeutics is posited.

PMID:
21984960
PMCID:
PMC3186944
DOI:
10.4155/tde.11.60
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center