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Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34(3):238-46. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2011.603017.

Development of the participation and environment measure for children and youth: conceptual basis.

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Boston University, Department of Occupational Therapy, Boston, MA 02215, USA.



The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual foundation of a new parent-report measure of the participation and environment of children and youth: the Participation and Environment Measure - Children and Youth version (PEM-CY).


The ICF-CY provided an initial conceptual framework. Results from a qualitative study to obtain parent perspectives and in-depth review of the literature were used to identify relevant dimensions, items and rating scales for measurement.


Life situations, defined as sets of activity categories, were identified for three settings: home, school and community. Participation was operationalized as a multidimensional construct with three measurement dimensions: frequency, extent of involvement and desire for change. Parallel sets of items examining environmental factors that are perceived to help or facilitate participation were defined in relation to the typical activities of each setting.


The PEM-CY provides a new measure of participation and environment that reflects the perspectives of parents of children and youth. The instrument will facilitate research and professional practice to understand and support the participation of children and youth with and without disabilities.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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