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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jul;163(1 Pt 1):130-7.

Risk factors for preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes: a multicenter case-control study.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA.


To assess the association between women with preterm premature rupture of membranes and 41 potential risk factors, we conducted a case-control study in six United States tertiary perinatal centers. The study involved completion of a comprehensive questionnaire for 341 women with preterm premature rupture of membranes in singleton pregnancies from 20 to 36 weeks' gestation and 253 control women matched for maternal age, gestational age, parity, clinic or private patient status, and previous vaginal or cesarean delivery. Univariate analysis revealed 11 variables associated with a significantly (p less than 0.05) increased risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes. After multiple logistic regression analysis, three variables remained in the model as independent risk factors: antepartum vaginal bleeding in more than one trimester (odds ratio 7.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2, 25.6), current cigarette smoking (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4, 3.1), and previous preterm delivery (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.4, 2.5). Cessation of cigarette smoking by pregnant women may reduce the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Further study is necessary to determine the nature of the relationship between antepartum vaginal bleeding and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

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