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Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012 Jan;154(1):93-103; discussion 103. doi: 10.1007/s00701-011-1175-2.

The usefulness of S100B, NSE, GFAP, NF-H, secretagogin and Hsp70 as a predictive biomarker of outcome in children with traumatic brain injury.

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Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University Children‘s Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic.



Predicting the long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important component of treatment strategy. Despite dramatically improved emergency management of TBI and apparent clinical recovery, most patients with TBI still may have long-term central nervous system (CNS) impairment.


Sixty-three patients with TBI were enrolled into the prospective study. Venous blood samples were taken at admission and every 24 h for a maximum of 6 consecutive days. Serum concentrations of the biomarkers S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), GFAP, NF-H, secretagogin and Hsp70 were quantified immuno-luminometrically or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The outcome was evaluated 6 months after TBI using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in all patients.


The S100B levels in patients with worse outcome (GOS 4 or death) were already significantly higher at D0 (p < 0.001; p = 0.002). NSE levels were significantly higher in patients who died or had worse outcomes (p < 0.001; p = 0.003). Patients who had worse outcomes (GOS) or died had higher GFAP values (p < 0.001; p < 0.001), but their dynamics were similar over the same period. NF-H grew significantly faster in patients who had a worse GOS or died (p < 0.001; p = 0.001).


Although further prospective study is warranted, these findings suggest that levels of biomarkers correlate with mortality and may be useful as predictors of outcome in children with TBI.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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