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Int J Mol Med. 2012 Jan;29(1):73-80. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2011.805. Epub 2011 Oct 3.

Ginsenoside Re lowers blood glucose and lipid levels via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in HepG2 cells and high-fat diet fed mice.

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Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


Ginsenoside Re is a protopanaxatriol-type saponin isolated from Panax ginseng berry. Although anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Re have been reported by several groups, its mechanism of action is largely unknown until now. Here, we examine anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Re and action mechanism(s) in human HepG2 hepatocytes and high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Re suppresses the hepatic glucose production via induction of orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP), and inhibits lipogenesis via suppression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its target gene [fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)] transcription. These effects were mediated through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and abolished when HepG2 cells were treated with an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into five groups: regular diet fed group (RD), high-fat diet fed group (HFD) and the HFD plus Re (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) groups. Re treatment groups were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks, and then orally administered Re once a day for 3 weeks. The in vitro results are likely to hold true in an in vivo experiment, as Re markedly lowered blood glucose and triglyceride levels and protected against hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. In conclusion, the current study suggest that ginsenoside Re improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia through activation of AMPK, and confers beneficial effects on type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

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