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PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24666. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024666. Epub 2011 Sep 28.

An image-free opto-mechanical system for creating virtual environments and imaging neuronal activity in freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans.

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1
Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America.

Abstract

Non-invasive recording in untethered animals is arguably the ultimate step in the analysis of neuronal function, but such recordings remain elusive. To address this problem, we devised a system that tracks neuron-sized fluorescent targets in real time. The system can be used to create virtual environments by optogenetic activation of sensory neurons, or to image activity in identified neurons at high magnification. By recording activity in neurons of freely moving C. elegans, we tested the long-standing hypothesis that forward and reverse locomotion are generated by distinct neuronal circuits. Surprisingly, we found motor neurons that are active during both types of locomotion, suggesting a new model of locomotion control in C. elegans. These results emphasize the importance of recording neuronal activity in freely moving animals and significantly expand the potential of imaging techniques by providing a mean to stabilize fluorescent targets.

PMID:
21969859
PMCID:
PMC3182168
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0024666
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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