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Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Sep;4(9):698-705. doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60177-6.

Larvicidal and repellent activity of medicinal plant extracts from Eastern Ghats of South India against malaria and filariasis vectors.

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Unit of Nanotechnology and Bioactive Natural Products, Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India.



To evaluate the larvicidal and repellent activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Acacia concinna (A. concinna), Cassia siamea (C. siamea), Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum),Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum), Lantana camara (L. camara), Nelumbo nucifera (N. nucifera) Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus), Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus).


The larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts were tested against early fourth-instar larvae of malaria and filariasis vectors. The mortality was observed 24 h and 48 h after treatment, data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC(50) and LC(90)) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the tested species. The repellent efficacy was determined against two mosquito species at five concentrations (31.25, 62.50, 125.00, 250.00, and 500.00 ppm) under the laboratory conditions.


All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h and 48 h of exposure; however, the highest activity was observed after 24 h in the leaf methanol extract of N. nucifera, seed ethyl acetate and methanol extract of P. nigrum against the larvae of An. stephensi (LC(50) = 34.76, 24.54 and 30.20 ppm) and against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 37.49, 43.94 and 57.39 ppm), respectively. The toxic effect of leaf methanol extract of C. siamea, seed methanol extract of C. cyminum, leaf ethyl acetate extract of N. nucifera, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of P. amarus and seed methanol extract of T. ammi were showed 100% mortality against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus after 48 h exposer. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of N. nucifera, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of P. nigrum and methanol extract of T. ammi and the mean complete protection time ranged from 30 to 150 min with the different extracts tested.


These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of C. siamea, N. nucifera, P. amarus, P. nigrum and T. ammi have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

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