Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24988. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024988. Epub 2011 Sep 26.

Comparative genomics study of multi-drug-resistance mechanisms in the antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus suis R61 strain.

Author information

Division of Animal Infectious Disease in the State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.



Streptococcus suis infections are a serious problem for both humans and pigs worldwide. The emergence and increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant S. suis strains pose significant clinical and societal challenges.


In our study, we sequenced one multi-drug-resistant S. suis strain, R61, and one S. suis strain, A7, which is fully sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the R61 strain is phylogenetically distinct from other S. suis strains, and the genome of R61 exhibits extreme levels of evolutionary plasticity with high levels of gene gain and loss. Our results indicate that the multi-drug-resistant strain R61 has evolved three main categories of resistance.


Comparative genomic analysis of S. suis strains with diverse drug-resistant phenotypes provided evidence that horizontal gene transfer is an important evolutionary force in shaping the genome of multi-drug-resistant strain R61. In this study, we discovered novel and previously unexamined mutations that are strong candidates for conferring drug resistance. We believe that these mutations will provide crucial clues for designing new drugs against this pathogen. In addition, our work provides a clear demonstration that the use of drugs has driven the emergence of the multi-drug-resistant strain R61.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center