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Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Dec 1;51(11):1943-51. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.08.035. Epub 2011 Sep 10.

Measuring E(GSH) and H2O2 with roGFP2-based redox probes.

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Division of Redox Regulation, DKFZ–ZMBH Alliance, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany


Redox biochemistry plays an important role in a wide range of cellular events. However, investigation of cellular redox processes is complicated by the large number of cellular redox couples, which are often not in equilibrium with one another and can vary significantly between subcellular compartments and cell types. Further, it is becoming increasingly clear that different redox systems convey different biological information; thus it makes little sense to talk of an overall "cellular redox state". To gain a more differentiated understanding of cellular redox biology, quantitative, redox couple-specific, in vivo measurements are necessary. Unfortunately our ability to investigate specific redox couples or redox-reactive molecules with the necessary degree of spatiotemporal resolution is very limited. The development of genetically encoded redox biosensors offers a promising new way to investigate redox biology. Recently developed redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), genetically fused to redox-active proteins, allow rapid equilibration of the roGFP moiety with a specific redox couple. Two probes based on this principle are now available: Grx1-roGFP2 for the measurement of glutathione redox potential (E(GSH)) and roGFP2-Orp1 for measuring changes in H(2)O(2) concentration. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the use of these probes in both yeast and mammalian systems using either plate-reader- or microscopy-based measurements.

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