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Vet Microbiol. 2012 Feb 24;155(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.09.007. Epub 2011 Sep 12.

Canine parvovirus--a review of epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, with emphasis on type 2c.

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1
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bari, Strada per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy. n.decaro@veterinaria.uniba.it

Abstract

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged in late 1970s causing severe epizootics in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. Soon after its emergence, CPV-2 underwent genetic evolution giving rise consecutively to two antigenic variants, CPV-2a and CPV-2b that replaced progressively the original type. In 2000, a new antigenic variant, CPV-2c, was detected in Italy and rapidly spread to several countries. In comparison to the original type CPV-2, the antigenic variants display increased pathogenicity in dogs and extended host range, being able to infect and cause disease in cats. Epidemiological survey indicate that the newest type CPV-2c is becoming prevalent in different geographic regions and is often associated to severe disease in adult dogs and also in dogs that have completed the vaccination protocols. However, the primary cause of failure of CPV vaccination is interference by maternally derived immunity. Diagnosis of CPV infection by traditional methods has been shown to be poorly sensitive, especially in the late stages of infections. New diagnostic approaches based on molecular methods have been developed for sensitive detection of CPV in clinical samples and rapid characterisation of the viral type. Continuous surveillance will help assess whether there is a real need to update currently available vaccines and diagnostic tests.

PMID:
21962408
DOI:
10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.09.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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