Send to

Choose Destination
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2011 Oct;5(5):647-62. doi: 10.1586/ers.11.62.

Extrapulmonary comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: state of the art.

Author information

Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, London, NW3 2PF, UK.


Extrapulmonary comorbidities are common and significant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), often contributing to symptoms, exacerbations, hospital admissions and mortality. Cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and psychological conditions are among the most prevalent and important of these. In particular, ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death in the COPD population as a whole. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art summary of key comorbidities observed in COPD patients in terms of their prevalence, impact, pathophysiology and prognosis. In addition, we review clinical, diagnostic and management strategies that may differ in COPD patients from the rest of the population.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center