Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Infect Dis. 2011 Sep 1;204 Suppl 2:S729-36. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir429.

Follow-up study of unknowingly pregnant women vaccinated against rubella in Brazil, 2001-2002.

Author information

National Immunization Program, Fundação Nacional de Saúde, FUNASA, Brasilia.



Brazil conducted mass immunization of women of childbearing age in 2001 and 2002. Surveillance was initiated for vaccination of women during pregnancy to monitor the effects of rubella vaccination on fetal outcomes.


Women vaccinated while pregnant or prior to conception were reported to the surveillance system. Susceptibility to rubella infection was determined by anti-rubella immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG immunoassays. Susceptible women were observed through delivery. Live-born infants were tested for anti-rubella IgM antibody; IgM-seropositive newborns were tested for viral shedding and observed for 12 months for signs of congenital rubella syndrome. Incidence of congenital rubella infection was calculated using data from 7 states.


A total of 22 708 cases of rubella vaccination during pregnancy or prior to conception were reported nationwide, 20,536 (90%) of which were from 7 of 27 states in Brazil. Of these, 2332 women were susceptible to rubella infection at vaccination. Sixty-seven (4.1%) of 1647 newborns had rubella IgM antibody (incidence rate, 4.1 congenital infections per 100 susceptible women vaccinated during pregnancy [95% confidence interval, 3.2-5.1]). None of the infants infected with rubella vaccine virus was born with congenital rubella syndrome.


As rubella elimination goals are adopted worldwide, evidence of rubella vaccine safety aids in planning and implementation of mass adult immunization.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
    Loading ...
    Support Center