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Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Mar;165(6):1978-1991. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01675.x.

TNF-α-induces airway hyperresponsiveness to cholinergic stimulation in guinea pig airways.

Author information

1
Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, London, UKUCB Celltech, Slough, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and it causes airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness to a number of spasmogens following inhalation.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

We compared contractions of guinea pig isolated trachea incubated with saline or TNF-α for 1, 2 or 4 days to electrical field stimulation (EFS), 5-HT or methacholine. In addition, we compared bronchoconstriction in anaesthetized guinea pigs 6 h after intratracheal instillation of saline or TNF-α to vagal nerve stimulation, i.v. 5-HT or methacholine. Differential counts were performed on the bronchoalvelolar lavage fluid (BALF).

KEY RESULTS:

Maximum contractions to methacholine, 5-HT and EFS were not different between freshly prepared and saline-incubated tissues. Exposure to TNF-α concentration-dependently potentiated contractions to 5-HT and EFS, but not methacholine. All contractions were atropine-sensitive, but not hexamethonium-sensitive. 5-HT-evoked contractions were inhibited by ketanserin or epithelial denudation. Only EFS-evoked contractions were tetrodotoxin-sensitive. Vagal stimulation, i.v. 5-HT or MCh caused a significant atropine-sensitive, frequency- and dose-dependent bronchoconstriction and decreased blood pressure similarly in both saline and TNF-α pre-treated animals. TNF-α potentiated the bronchoconstriction to vagal stimulation and 5-HT, but not MCh. The BALF from saline-treated animals contained predominantly macrophages, whereas that from TNF-α-treated animals contained neutrophils.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

TNF-α caused airway hyperresponsiveness to nerve stimulation in vivo and increased contractility in vitro. However, responsiveness to MCh was unchanged, suggesting a pre-synaptic action of TNF-α on parasympathetic nerves. TNF-α-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to 5-HT suggested an increased 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated acetylcholine release from epithelial cells.

PMID:
21951209
PMCID:
PMC3372845
DOI:
10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01675.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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