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Prostate Cancer. 2011;2011:249290. doi: 10.1155/2011/249290. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Metastasis Update: Human Prostate Carcinoma Invasion via Tubulogenesis.

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Department of Pathology, The Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.


This paper proposes that human prostate carcinoma primarily invades as a cohesive cell collective through a mechanism similar to embryonic tubulogenesis, instead of the popular epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) model. Evidence supporting a tubulogenesis model is presented, along with suggestions for additional research. Additionally, observations documenting cell adhesion molecule changes in tissue and stromal components are reviewed, allowing for comparisons between the current branching morphogenesis models and the tubulogenesis model. Finally, the implications of this model on prevailing views of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for aggressive prostatic disease are considered.

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