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Biomaterials. 2011 Dec;32(36):9622-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.09.009. Epub 2011 Sep 25.

Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

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1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Abstract

Bone tissue engineering is a highly interdisciplinary field that seeks to tackle the most challenging bone-related clinical issues. The major components of bone tissue engineering are the scaffold, cells, and growth factors. This review will focus on the scaffold and recent advancements in developing scaffolds that can mimic the natural extracellular matrix of bone. Specifically, these novel scaffolds mirror the nanofibrous collagen network that comprises the majority of the non-mineral portion of bone matrix. Using two main fabrication techniques, electrospinning and thermally-induced phase separation, and incorporating bone-like minerals, such as hydroxyapatite, composite nanofibrous scaffolds can improve cell adhesion, stem cell differentiation, and tissue formation. This review will cover the two main processing techniques and how they are being applied to fabricate scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It will then cover how these scaffolds can enhance the osteogenic capabilities of a variety of cell types and survey the ability of the constructs to support the growth of clinically relevant bone tissue.

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