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Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2011 Oct;21(4):657-70. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2011.07.001.

The overall approach to the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

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Translational Gastroenterology Unit and NHS Blood and Transplant, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.


This article presents a practical overview of the approach to managing a patient presenting with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). The authors focus on initial resuscitation and risk stratification strategies that should be used in the Emergency Department, and put into context the subsequent optimal use of pharmacologic and endoscopic therapies and postendoscopic management. It is hoped that this framework will provide the reader with a practical and evidence-based approach to the management of NVUGIB from the patient's initial presentation through to hospital discharge.

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