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Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2011 Oct;21(4):613-35. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2011.07.011.

The prevalence and incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding throughout the world.

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Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.


Due to heightened awareness regarding testing for and eradication of infection, the prevalence and incidence of H pylori infection (and by extension the prevalence and incidence of peptic ulcer disease) appear to have declined in recent years. However, antimicrobial resistance is mounting and traditional clarithromycin- or metronidazole-containing triple therapies may no longer be highly effective at eradicating the infection. Combined bismuth- and metronidazole-containing quadruple therapy or sequential 4-drug therapy may be better choices for first-line treatment against this unique pathogen that is ideally suited to survive in the human stomach.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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