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J Urol. 2011 Nov;186(5):1888-93. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.07.011. Epub 2011 Sep 23.

Increased risk of diabetes in patients with urinary calculi: a 5-year followup study.

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Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Ban Ciao, Taipei, Taiwan.



No prospective followup study to date to our knowledge has evaluated the relationship between stone disease and the subsequent risk of diabetes mellitus. In this population based study we examine the relationship between a history of urinary calculi and the risk of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan.


A total of 23,569 adult patients with new diagnoses of urinary calculi from 2001 to 2003 were recruited together with 70,707 matched enrollees as a comparison cohort. All patients were tracked for a 5-year period from the index health care encounter to identify those who had a subsequent diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the risk of diabetes mellitus for the study and comparison cohorts.


Of a total of 94,276 patients 2,921 (12.39%) from the urinary calculi group and 6,171 (8.73%) from the comparison group received a subsequent diagnosis of diabetes mellitus during the followup period. The stratified Cox proportional analysis showed that, after censoring individuals who died during followup, and adjusting for patient monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and obesity, the hazard of receiving a first diagnosis of diabetes during the 5-year followup was 1.32 times greater for patients with urinary calculi than for those in the comparison cohort (95% CI 1.26-1.39, p <0.001).


Our results suggest that patients who receive a diagnosis of urinary calculi are at increased risk for diabetes mellitus at 5-year followup.

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