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Maturitas. 2011 Nov;70(3):246-55. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.07.021. Epub 2011 Sep 23.

Primary hyperparathyroidism: Skeletal and non-skeletal effects, diagnosis and management.

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Division of Endocrinology SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.


Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the third most common endocrinopathy seen today, and is most frequently found in the 6th to 7th decade of life. PHPT can present with various degrees of symptoms, and can affect many organ systems, including the skeletal, renal, central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Despite this, the most common presentation of hyperparathyroidism is "asymptomatic" with the diagnosis being made incidentally with the initial finding of hypercalcemia on routine laboratory studies, leading to further investigation. Surgical versus medical management is usually based on factors such as age and complications related to hyperparathyroidism (i.e. the presence of renal stones, renal insufficiency and bone loss and significant increases in serum calcium). Treatment options include parathyroidectomy, bisphosphonates, calcitonin and calcimimetics. In this review, we discuss primary hyperparathyroidism in detail with a focus on clinical manifestations particularly in the elderly population. We highlight the indications for surgical versus medical management and compare some of the uses of newer therapeutic agents relative to traditional ones.

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