Send to

Choose Destination
Rev Mal Respir. 2011 Sep;28(7):856-63. doi: 10.1016/j.rmr.2011.02.014. Epub 2011 Sep 3.

[Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a retrospective review of clinical and paraclinical data].

[Article in French]

Author information

Annexe pédiatrique, service de pneumologie pédiatrique, CHU hôpital Sud, 16, boulevard de Bulgarie, 35000 Rennes, France.



Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disease responsible for a disruption of normal ciliary function. Its clinical presentation is usually in early childhood with pulmonary and otorhinolaryngologic symptoms. Early diagnosis is essential to avoid the development of bronchiectasis. The aim of the study was to retrospectively review the clinical features of children suspected to have PCD.


A total of 89 children had a bronchoscopy to perform a biopsy analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the childrens' hospital of Rennes between 2000 and 2009. PCD was diagnosed in 17 children, excluded in 51 and results were uncertain in 21 children. Mean age at diagnosis was 6.5 years. In the PCD group, a history of neonatal respiratory distress was found in 40% of cases, 82% had had bronchopneumonia, 37% sinusitis, 82% recurrent otitis and 23% situs inversus. These subjects had defects in ciliary structure, 59% in the dynein arms, 35% in the central complex and 6% having both. Nasal nitric oxide production was consistent with the results of TEM in 16 cases: five PCD, 11 without PCD. In two cases, the results were discordant.


This case series highlights the key clinical features of recurrent otitis, sinusitis, and situs inversus, especially when occurring in combination with bronchitic symptoms. Measures of nasal nitric oxide are useful for the diagnosis of PCD and in the case of high levels of NO, PCD is unlikely. Results may not be definitive and TEM analysis of biopsies is still indispensable to ensure the diagnosis and guide genetic counselling.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Masson (France)
Loading ...
Support Center