Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Vet Res. 2011 Sep 26;42:103. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-42-103.

Increase of cells expressing PD-L1 in bovine leukemia virus infection and enhancement of anti-viral immune responses in vitro via PD-L1 blockade.

Author information

1
Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan. okazu@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp.

Abstract

The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restores anti-virus immune responses, with concomitant reduction in viral load. In a previous report, we showed that, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, the expression of bovine PD-1 is closely associated with disease progression. However, the functions of bovine PD-L1 are still unknown. To investigate the role of PD-L1 in BLV infection, we identified the bovine PD-L1 gene, and examined PD-L1 expression in BLV-infected cattle in comparison with uninfected cattle. The deduced amino acid sequence of bovine PD-L1 shows high homology to the human and mouse PD-L1. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells, especially among B cells, was upregulated in cattle with the late stage of the disease compared to cattle at the aleukemic infection stage or uninfected cattle. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells correlated positively with prediction markers for the progression of the disease such as leukocyte number, virus load and virus titer whilst on the contrary, it inversely correlated with the degree of interferon-gamma expression. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in vitro by PD-L1-specific antibody upregulated the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, and correspondingly, downregulated the BLV provirus load and the proportion of BLV-gp51 expressing cells. These data suggest that PD-L1 induces immunoinhibition in disease progressed cattle during chronic BLV infection. Therefore, PD-L1 would be a potential target for developing immunotherapies against BLV infection.

PMID:
21943148
PMCID:
PMC3195098
DOI:
10.1186/1297-9716-42-103
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center