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Semin Immunol. 2012 Apr;24(2):136-42. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2011.08.015. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Treatment options and strategies for antibody mediated rejection after renal transplantation.

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University of Pennsylvania, Transplant Surgery, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


Antibody mediated rejection is a significant clinical problem encountered in a subset of renal transplant recipients. This type of rejection has a variable pathogenesis from the presence of donor specific antibodies with no overt disease to immediate hyperacute rejection and many variations between. Antibody mediated rejection is more common in human leukocyte antigen sensitized patients. In general, transplant graft survival after antibody mediated rejection is jeopardized, with less than 50% graft survival 5 years after this diagnosis. A variety of agents have been utilized singly and in combinations to treat antibody mediated rejection with differing results and significant research efforts are being placed on developing new targets for intervention. These same agents have been used in desensitization protocols with some success. In this review, we describe the biology of antibody mediated rejection, review the available agents to treat this form of rejection, and highlight areas of ongoing and future research into this difficult clinical problem.

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