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Sleep Breath. 2012 Dec;16(4):977-86. doi: 10.1007/s11325-011-0596-8. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Gender difference in snoring and how it changes with age: systematic review and meta-regression.

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Department of Paediatrics, Kwong Wah Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.



The aim of this study was to study the interactions among age, gender, and snoring across all age groups


All cross-sectional study reporting gender-specific prevalence of snoring in general population published from 1966 through July 2008 were included and were meta-analyzed. The sources of heterogeneity among primary studies were studied by meta-regression.


From a total of 1,593 citations reviewed, 63 were included in the analysis of snoring. These 63 studies were comprised 104,337 and 110,474, respectively. A combined odds ratio of 1.89 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.75-2.03 for male versus female was found. The heterogeneity was significant with an estimated between-study variance, τ (2) being 0.065 and 95% confidence interval of 0.0397-0.0941. Multiple meta-regression showed that age were the significant effect modifier of the relationship between snoring and gender.


This study found a consistent male predominance in snoring among the general population, and the heterogeneity in the risk of snoring between two genders can be partly explained by age.

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