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J Oral Pathol Med. 2012 Mar;41(3):261-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2011.01082.x. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Warty dyskeratoma/focal acantholytic dyskeratosis--an update on a rare oral lesion.

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Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.



Warty dyskeratoma (WD) is an uncommon lesion of the skin that is considered to be associated with the pilosebaceous apparatus. Histologically similar lesions have been described in the oral region mainly by case reports and under the terms 'WD' or 'focal acantholytic dyskeratosis (FAD)'. Owing to the paucity of reports, many aspects of the oral lesions remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to report a new case in an extremely rare location, the buccal mucosa, and to present a comprehensive updated review and analysis of the literature.


We reviewed all cases of oral lesions that were diagnosed as WD and FAD and analyzed them according to their clinical and pathologic features.


The search yielded only 41 cases. The lesions usually appeared as asymptomatic, solitary, white nodules, papules, or patches on bone-bound mucosa. They occasionally had a rough surface and depressed center. The lesions were most common in the fifth to seventh decades. Use of tobacco appeared to be the most prevalent predisposing factor. The histopathological differential diagnosis of the lesion included acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma, keratoacanthoma, and Darier's disease.


Warty dyskeratoma/FAD are uncommon oral lesions which are not encountered in the daily practice of oral pathologists. The absence of an association of oral lesions with the pilosebaceous apparatus suggests that they are probably distinctly different from cutaneous ones. As such, we suggest the histologic term isolated FAD for oral lesions, rather than WD.

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