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Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2012 Feb;10(1):20-5. doi: 10.1089/met.2011.0050. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Longitudinal factor analysis reveals a distinct clustering of cardiometabolic improvements during intensive, short-term dietary and exercise intervention in obese children and adolescents.

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Department of Academic Cardiology, Castle Hill Hospital, Hull, United Kingdom.



The aim of this study was to investigate changes in cardiometabolic clustering characteristics in response to highly significant weight loss.


Pre-post analysis of a lifestyle intervention for the treatment of obesity and the assessment of interrelated metabolic changes were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). A total of n=75 clinically obese boys and girls [standardized body mass index (sBMI) 3.07±0.59] aged 8-18 years were assessed after lifestyle intervention (30±12 days).


There were favorable improvements in BMI waist circumference, fasting insulin, triglycerides (TGs), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (all P<0.001). PCA was performed using a simple conceptual model of changes in six metabolic variables: Overall and central obesity (BMI and waist circumference), dyslipidemia [TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], insulin resistance [fasting insulin or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], and blood pressure [SBP or mean arterial pressure (MAP)]. PCA models consistently identified two factors underlying the changes in six cardiometabolic variables. These were labeled a "metabolic" factor, typically including waist circumference, fasting triglyceride, insulin, or HOMA-IR and HDL-C (negatively) and an "obesity/blood pressure" factor, typically loading waist, BMI, SBP or MAP, and occasionally fasting insulin/HOMA-IR). The metabolic and obesity/blood pressure factors explained 26.5%-28.4% and 30.4%-31.9%, of the variance in metabolic risk factors changes, respectively. Reductions in BMI, waist circumference, and HOMA-IR (or fasting insulin) were central underlying features of cardiometabolic changes.


There were significant and favorable cardiometabolic risk factor changes to short-term weight-loss. A distinct clustering of cardiometabolic responses supports the etiological importance of both overall and central obesity and insulin resistance in the modification of cardiometabolic risk in obese youths.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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