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Am J Physiol. 1990 Jun;258(6 Pt 1):E937-43.

Effect of exercise on insulin action, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in aging.

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1
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.

Abstract

To assess the effect of exercise training on the insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic B-cell function of aging, we studied 13 healthy older men (ages 61-82 yr) before and after 6 mo intensive endurance exercise. An index of insulin sensitivity (SI) was measured using Bergman's minimal model. Intravenous glucose tolerance was quantified using the glucose disappearance constant (KGlc) while oral glucose tolerance was assessed after a 100-g glucose load. B-cell function was evaluated by measuring the acute insulin response (AIR) to glucose injection at fasting glucose (AIRGlc) and the AIR to arginine at multiple clamped glucose levels. Exercise produced an endurance training effect as demonstrated by an 18% increase in maximum O2 consumption (VO2max) [38.2 +/- 1.4 to 45.0 +/- 1.1 (SE) ml.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1, P less than 0.001]. An unchanged fasting glucose (5.3 +/- 0.2 to 5.4 +/- 0.2 mM) despite a reduced fasting insulin (61 +/- 6 to 48 +/- 6 pM, P less than 0.01) suggested exercise training improved insulin sensitivity. This was confirmed by a 36% increase in SI from 3.47 +/- 0.41 to 4.71 +/- 0.42 x 10(-5) min-1/pM (P = 0.01). Intravenous glucose tolerance did not change as measured by KGlc, which was 1.46 +/- 0.09 before and 1.48 +/- 0.16%/min after exercise training. Likewise, the incremental glucose response to oral glucose (633 +/- 49-618 +/- 45 mM.min) was unchanged. B-cell function was decreased as reflected by AIRGlc (351 +/- 73-245 +/- 53 pM, P less than 0.01) and the AIRArg at maximal glycemic potentiation (AIRmax, 1,718 +/- 260-1,228 +/- 191 pM, P less than 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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