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Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011 Dec;13(12):1177-86. doi: 10.1089/dia.2011.0150. Epub 2011 Sep 20.

Recent advances in the prevention of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

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Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado in Denver, Aurora, CO 80045-6511, USA.


Iatrogenic hypoglycemia is one of the chief barriers to optimal glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). As a common contributor to morbidity and mortality in T1D, severe hypoglycemia (SH) is also a major fear for people with T1D and their families. Consequently, fear of hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia-avoidant behaviors are predominant limiting factors in achieving euglycemia in people with T1D. Nocturnal SH and hypoglycemia unawareness are prevalent obstacles in the detection of hypoglycemia which further impair the prevention and treatment of SH. Various strategies and technologies have already been developed to help detect and prevent hypoglycemia, including improved patient education, frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose levels, the use of rapid-acting and basal insulin analogs, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy, exercise-related insulin modifications, and continuous glucose monitors. The efficacy of these methods is well established, but further advances are still needed. The purpose of this review is to describe these currently available methods and to emphasize recent progress related to the prevention of hypoglycemia in T1D.

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