Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24751. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024751. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Origination of new immunological functions in the costimulatory molecule B7-H3: the role of exon duplication in evolution of the immune system.

Author information

1
Suzhou Health Technology College, Suzhou, China.

Abstract

B7-H3, a recently identified B7 family member, has different isoforms in human and mouse. Mouse B7-H3 gene has only one isoform (2IgB7-H3) with two Ig-like domains, whereas human B7-H3 has two isoforms (2IgB7-H3 and 4IgB7-H3). In this study a systematic genomic survey across various species from teleost fishes to mammals revealed that 4IgB7-H3 isoform also appeared in pigs, guinea pigs, cows, dogs, African elephants, pandas, megabats and higher primate animals, which resulted from tandem exon duplication. Further sequence analysis indicated that this duplication generated a new conserved region in the first IgC domain, which might disable 4IgB7-H3 from releasing soluble form, while 2IgB7-H3 presented both membrane and soluble forms. Through three-dimensional (3D) structure modeling and fusion-protein binding assays, we discovered that the duplicated isoform had a different structure and might bind to another potential receptor on activated T cells. In T cell proliferation assay, human 2IgB7-H3 (h2IgB7-H3) and mouse B7-H3 (mB7-H3) both increased T cell proliferation and IL-2, IFN-γ production, whereas human 4IgB7-H3 (h4IgB7-H3) reduced cytokine production and T cell proliferation compared to control. Furthermore, both h2IgB7-H3 and mB7-H3 upregulated the function of lipopolysacharide (LPS)-activated monocyte in vitro. Taken together, our data implied that during the evolution of vertebrates, B7-H3 exon duplication contributed to the generation of a new 4IgB7-H3 isoform in many mammalian species, which have carried out distinct functions in the immune responses.

PMID:
21931843
PMCID:
PMC3172298
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0024751
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center