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Neuroimage. 2012 Jan 16;59(2):1896-903. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.08.088. Epub 2011 Sep 2.

Joint ICA of ERP and fMRI during error-monitoring.

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The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA.


The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is commonly separated into two functional divisions: the cognitive division, which lies in the caudal region and the affective division, which lies in the rostral region of the ACC. Both regions of the ACC are engaged during error-monitoring tasks; however, little is known about the temporal sequencing associated with cognition and affective processes during error-monitoring. Here we use joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA) to couple event-related potential (ERP) time courses and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) spatial maps to examine the spatio-temporal stages of engagement in the two divisions of the ACC during error-monitoring. Consistent with hypotheses, two of the five significant spatio-temporal components identified by jICA revealed that the error-related negativity (ERN) ERP was associated with distinct spatial fMRI patterns in the ACC. The ERN(1) was associated with activity in the caudal ACC and lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) while the ERN(2) was associated with activity in the rostral ACC. These results suggest that during error-monitoring the caudal ACC and lPFC engage prior to the rostral ACC. These results suggest that cognition precedes affect during error-monitoring.

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