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World J Surg Oncol. 2011 Sep 19;9:107. doi: 10.1186/1477-7819-9-107.

The association of fish consumption with bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

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Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine of Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315020, China.



The association between fish consumption and risk of bladder cancer has not been established yet. The results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent.


We conducted a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies on the relationship between fish intake and bladder cancer. We quantified associations with bladder cancer using meta-analysis of relative risk associated to the highest versus the lowest category of fish intake using random effect models. Heterogeneity among studies was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed using the Begg's funnel plot.


Five cohort and 9 case-control studies were eligible for inclusion. The combined relative risk showed that fish consumption was negatively, but not significantly, associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer (relative risk, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.12). In subgroup analyses, there was no evidence that study design, geographical region, case sample size, or exposure assessment substantially influenced the estimate of effects.


The overall current literature on fish consumption and the risk of bladder cancer suggested no association. Because of the limited number of studies, further well-designed prospective studies are needed to explore the effect of fish on bladder cancer.

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