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IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2011 Nov;15(6):848-53. doi: 10.1109/TITB.2011.2163640. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

Electromagnetic interference of cardiac rhythmic monitoring devices to radio frequency identification: analytical analysis and mitigation methodology.

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RFID Center of Excellence, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA15261, USA.


Increasing density of wireless communication and development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in particular have increased the susceptibility of patients equipped with cardiac rhythmic monitoring devices (CRMD) to environmental electro magnetic interference (EMI). Several organizations reported observing CRMD EMI from different sources. This paper focuses on mathematically analyzing the energy as perceived by the implanted device, i.e., voltage. Radio frequency (RF) energy transmitted by RFID interrogators is considered as an example. A simplified front-end equivalent circuit of a CRMD sensing circuitry is proposed for the analysis following extensive black-box testing of several commercial pacemakers and implantable defibrillators. After careful understanding of the mechanics of the CRMD signal processing in identifying the QRS complex of the heart-beat, a mitigation technique is proposed. The mitigation methodology introduced in this paper is logical in approach, simple to implement and is therefore applicable to all wireless communication protocols.

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