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Cell. 2011 Sep 16;146(6):866-72. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.042.

DNA demethylation dynamics.

Author information

1
Baxter Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5175, USA.

Abstract

The discovery of cytosine hydroxymethylation (5hmC) suggested a simple means of demethylating DNA and activating genes. Further experiments, however, unearthed an unexpectedly complex process, entailing both passive and active mechanisms of DNA demethylation by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) and AID/APOBEC families of enzymes. The consensus emerging from these studies is that removal of cytosine methylation in mammalian cells can occur by DNA repair. These reports highlight that in certain contexts, DNA methylation is not fixed but dynamic, requiring continuous regulation.

PMID:
21925312
PMCID:
PMC3236603
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.042
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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