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Dev Biol. 2011 Nov 1;359(1):82-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.08.027. Epub 2011 Sep 7.

Myostatin-deficient medaka exhibit a double-muscling phenotype with hyperplasia and hypertrophy, which occur sequentially during post-hatch development.

Author information

1
Aquatic Animal Health Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, 224-1 Hiruta, Tamaki, Mie, 519-0423, Japan. Electronic address: chisada@affrc.go.jp.
2
Aquaculture Biology Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, 224-1 Hiruta, Tamaki, Mie, 519-0423, Japan.
3
Department of Radiation Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida Konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.
4
Center for Novel Science Initiatives, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 4-3-13 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001, Japan.
5
Sequence Technology Team, RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan.
6
Aquatic Animal Health Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, 224-1 Hiruta, Tamaki, Mie, 519-0423, Japan. Electronic address: yoshiura@fra.affrc.go.jp.

Abstract

Myostatin (MSTN) functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. In mammals, MSTN-deficient animals result in an increase of skeletal muscle mass with both hyperplasia and hypertrophy. A MSTN gene is highly conserved within the fish species, allowing speculation that MSTN-deficient fish could exhibit a double-muscled phenotype. Some strategies for blocking or knocking down MSTN in adult fish have been already performed; however, these fish show either only hyperplastic or hypertrophic growth in muscle fiber. Therefore, the role of MSTN in fish myogenesis during post-hatch growth remains unclear. To address this question, we have made MSTN-deficient medaka (mstnC315Y) by using the targeting induced local lesions in a genome method. mstnC315Y can reproduce and have the same survival period as WT medaka. Growth rates of WT and mstnC315Y were measured at juvenile (1-2wk post-hatching), post-juvenile (3-7wk post-hatching) and adult (8-16wk post-hatching) stages. In addition, effects of MSTN on skeletal muscle differentiation were investigated at histological and molecular levels at each developmental stage. As a result, mstnC315Y show a significant increase in body weight from the post-juvenile to adult stage. Hyper-morphogenesis of skeletal muscle in mstnC315Y was accomplished due to hyperplastic growth from post-juvenile to early adult stage, followed by hypertrophic growth in the adult stage. Myf-5 and MyoD were up-regulated in mstnC315Y at the hyperplastic growth phase, while myogenin was highly expressed in mstnC315Y at the hypertrophic growth phase. These indicated that MSTN in medaka plays a dual role for muscle fiber development. In conclusion, MSTN in medaka regulates the number and size of muscle fiber in a temporally-controlled manner during posthatch growth.

PMID:
21925159
DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.08.027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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