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Eur Heart J. 2013 Jun;34(23):1755-65. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr365. Epub 2011 Sep 14.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ activates endothelial progenitor cells to induce angio-myogenesis through matrix metallo-proteinase-9-mediated insulin-like growth factor-1 paracrine networks.

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National Research Laboratory for Cardiovascular Stem Cell, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



The roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ in vascular biology are mainly unknown. We investigated the effects of PPAR-δ activation on the paracrine networks between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial cells (ECs)/skeletal muscle.


Treatment of EPCs with GW501516, a PPAR-δ agonist, induced specifically matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP)-9 by direct transcriptional activation. Subsequently, this increased-MMP-9 broke down insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-3, resulting in IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activation in surrounding target cells. Treatment of conditioned medium from GW501516-stimulated EPCs enhanced the number and functions of human umbilical vein ECs and C2C12 myoblasts via MMP-9-mediated IGF-1R activation. Systemic administration of GW501516 in mice increased MMP-9 expression in EPCs, and augmented IGFBP-3 degradation in serum. In a mouse hindlimb ischaemia model, systemic treatment of GW501516 or local transplantation of GW501516-treated EPCs induced IGF-1R phosphorylation in ECs and skeletal muscle in the ischaemic limbs, leading to augmented angiogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. It also enhanced wound healing with increased angiogenesis in a mouse skin punch wound model. These pro-angiogenic and muscle-regenerating effects were abolished by MMP-9 knock-out.


Our results suggest that PPAR-δ is a crucial modulator of angio-myogenesis via the paracrine effects of EPCs, and its agonist is a good candidate as a therapeutic drug for patients with peripheral vascular diseases.


Agnio-myogenesis; Endothelial progenitor cell; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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