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J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2011 Nov;17(6):1030-8. doi: 10.1017/S1355617711000993. Epub 2011 Sep 16.

Establishing, versus maintaining, brain function: a neuro-computational model of cortical reorganization after injury to the immature brain.

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1
School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The effect of age at injury on outcome after acquired brain injury (ABI) has been the subject of much debate. Many argue that young brains are relatively tolerant of injury. A contrasting viewpoint due to Hebb argues that greater system integrity may be required for the initial establishment of a function than for preservation of an already-established function. A neuro-computational model of cortical map formation was adapted to examine effects of focal and distributed injury at various stages of development. This neural network model requires a period of training during which it self-organizes to establish cortical maps. Injuries were simulated by lesioning the model at various stages of this process and network function was monitored as "development" progressed to completion. Lesion effects are greater for larger, earlier, and distributed (multifocal) lesions. The mature system is relatively robust, particularly to focal injury. Activities in recovering systems injured at an early stage show changes that emerge after an asymptomatic interval. Early injuries cause qualitative changes in system behavior that emerge after a delay during which the effects of the injury are latent. Functions that are incompletely established at the time of injury may be vulnerable particularly to multifocal injury.

PMID:
21920068
DOI:
10.1017/S1355617711000993
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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